[37] The Germans thought that the appearance of the British squadron at dawn was too remarkable to be coincidence and concluded that a spy near their base in Jade Bay was responsible, not that the British were reading their encrypted wireless communications. Apart from the sinking of Blücher, the Germans out-hit the British by over three to one, with 22 heavy-calibre hits—16 on Lion and six on Tiger—against seven British hits. [44], Naval battle fought in the North Sea on 24 January 1915, The Battle of Dogger bank location in the North Sea, 1916 advertisement for a viewing of panoramic footage of the, Royal Scots Territorials firing a salute over the grave of Captain Erdmann, Commander of SMS. Ingenohl was sacked and replaced by Admiral Hugo von Pohl. German messages could be passed only by wireless, using cyphers to disguise their content. Dave Bender. Dogger Bank 1904 Dogger Bank 1904. [4] During the Battle off Texel (17 October), the commander of the German destroyer SMS S119 threw overboard his secret papers in a lead lined chest as the ship sank but on 30 November, a British trawler dragged up the chest. [28], Despite the overwhelming odds, Blücher put the British destroyer HMS Meteor out of action and scored two hits on the British battlecruisers with its 21 cm (8.3 in) guns. Dogger Bank incident, during the Russo-Japanese War, Russian naval ships opened fire on British fishing boats in the area of Dogger Bank on 21 October 1904, mistaking them for Japanese torpedo boats. The Dogger Bank incident (also known as the North Sea Incident, the Russian Outrage or the Incident of Hull) occurred on the night of 21/22 October 1904, when the Russian Baltic Fleet mistook a British trawler fleet from Kingston upon Hull in the Dogger Bank area of the North Sea for an Imperial Japanese Navy force and fired on them. Lat., 5 25' E. Long and sank at 13:13, with the loss of 792 crew. [34] The surviving German ships reached port; Derfflinger was repaired by 17 February but Seydlitz needed a drydock and was not ready for sea until 1 April. PMN1. "[5] The incident almost led to war between the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire. … )[39], Beatty had lost control of the battle and he judged that the opportunity of an overwhelming victory had been lost and the Admiralty—erroneously believing that Derfflinger had been badly damaged—later reached the same conclusion. It was fought near Dogger Bank in the North Sea on January 24, 1915. With five British ships against four German, Beatty intended that his two rear ships, New Zealand and Indomitable, should engage Blücher, while his leading three engaged their opposite numbers. On October 21, 1904, the Russian battle fleet, proceeding from their Baltic Sea ports via the North Sea to the Far East for service in the Russo-Japanese War, mistook a British fishing fleet on the Dogger Bank for Japanese torpedo boats and opened fire, killing two men, wounding half a dozen, and sinking a trawler. The British had intercepted and decoded German wireless transmissions, gaining advance knowledge that a German raiding squadron was heading for Dogger Bank and ships of the Grand Fleet sailed to intercept the raiders. Russian warships also fired on each other in the chaos of the … [25], With his ships running short of ammunition, Hipper chose to steam for home, leaving the disabled Blücher behind, to save his remaining ships. Following a number of defeats in the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan … [13] The limited nature of the operation conformed to the ban by the Kaiser on operations by the High Seas Fleet, that had been reiterated on 10 January. [26] The annihilation of the German squadron appeared likely to the British until 10:54, when Beatty—believing he saw a submarine periscope on Lion′s starboard bow—ordered a 90° turn to port, to avoid a submarine ambush (The "periscope" may have been a surfacing, run-out torpedo which had been launched 15 minutes earlier by the German destroyer V5). [2] Two British fishermen died, six more were injured, one fishing vessel was sunk, and five more boats were damaged. In the First World War, the area saw battles in 1915 and … The worst British failure was in the exploitation of the intelligence provided by the code breakers at Room 40 (Sir Alfred Ewing), that had given the British notice of the raid. [19][20] Only the prompt action of the executive officer in flooding the magazines saved Seydlitz from a magazine explosion that would have destroyed the ship. This signals intelligence meant that the British did not need wasteful defensive standing patrols and sweeps of the North Sea but could economise on fuel and use the time for training and maintenance. The Russian 2 nd Pacific Squadron had been sent from the Baltic to relieve the blockade of Port Arthur – Tsar Nicolas II’s much coveted warm water port – and defeat Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō’s fleet. [41] Signalling on board Lion was again poor in the first hours of Jutland, with serious consequences for the British. Dogger Bank Incident AHC: Make Russo-Japanese War into Great War Britain joins Russo-Japanese War WI: Dogger Bank Sparks a War Russian Empire vs British Empire, early 1900s. The incident briefly brought Britain and Russia to the edge of war, but a … Beatty contemplated leaving a flotilla of destroyers to guard Lion and sending the rest to the German Bight, to make a night attack on the German ships but the damage to Lion caused more problems. The last squadron of the fleet under Commander-in-Chief Admiral … [16] The report produced by the International Commission concluded that: "the commissioners declare that their findings, which are therein formulated, are not, in their opinion, of a nature to cast any discredit upon the military qualities or the humanity of Admiral Rojdestvensky, or of the personnel of his squadron". Rear-Admiral Moore was quietly replaced and sent to the Canary Islands and Captain Henry Pelly of Tiger was blamed for not taking over when Lion was damaged. The Dogger Bank incident (also known as the North Sea Incident, the Russian Outrage or the Incident of Hull) occurred on the night of 21/22 October 1904, when the Russian Baltic Fleet mistook some British trawlers in the Dogger Bank area of the North Sea for an Imperial Japanese Navy force and fired on them. PMN1. 3,941 3. It was known that enemy intelligence had been heavily active in the region. Because of incorrect reports about the presence of Japanese torpedo boats, submarines and minefields in the North Sea, and the general nervousness of the Russian sailors, 48 harmless fishing vessels were atta… At 11:02, realising that so sharp a turn would open the range too much, Beatty ordered "Course NE" to limit the turn to 45° and then added "Engage the enemy's rear", to clarify his intent that the other ships, which had now left Lion far behind, should pursue the main German force. 1. On 14 October, Oliver became Chief of the Naval War Staff, but continued to treat Room 40 more as a fiefdom and a source for the informal group of officers around the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, which received decoded messages but had insufficient authority to use them to best advantage. At the Admiralty, Wilson, Oliver and Churchill arranged a plan to confront the Germans with a superior opponent. Dogger Bank fishing boats were famously attacked by the Russian Baltic Fleet in October 1904, and when the First World War broke out a decade later, they continued to trawl for fish, with British, German and neutral boats continuing to ply the waters. The British battlecruisers broke off the pursuit of the German squadron and attacked Blücher, with most of the British light cruisers and destroyers joining in. 21–22 Oct 1904 Dogger Bank Incident Russian Baltic Fleet, bound for the Far East, fires on British trawlers in Dogger Bank, killing 3 fishermen in wikipedia. During World War I, on Jan. 24, 1915, a battle occurred in the Dogger Bank area between British and German cruiser squadrons. Kaiser Wilhelm II issued an order that all risks to surface vessels were to be avoided. At sea, Beatty had sent ambiguous signals and some commanders had not used their initiative. As it crept home, the ship suffered further engine-trouble from saltwater contamination in the boiler-feed-water system and its speed dropped to 8 kn (9.2 mph; 15 km/h). The newer battleships and a few cruisers proceeded around the Cape of Good Hope under command of Admiral Rozhestvensky while the older battleships and lighter cruisers made their way through the Suez Canal under the command of Admiral von Felkerzam. [7], With the German High Seas Fleet (HSF) confined to port after the British success at the Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1914, Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, the Commander-in-Chief of the HSF planned a raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on the east coast of England, with the I Scouting Group (Admiral Franz von Hipper), a battlecruiser squadron of three battlecruisers and a large armoured cruiser, supported by light cruisers and destroyers. [30] By this time, the rest of the German ships were too far away for the British to catch up. British casualties were 15 killed and 80 men wounded. This fire spread rapidly through other compartments, igniting ready propellant charges all the way to the magazines and knocked out both rear turrets with the loss of 165 men. After the British victory, both navies replaced officers who were thought to have shown poor judgement and made changes to equipment and procedures because of failings observed during the battle. Blücher had to reduce speed to 17 kn (20 mph; 31 km/h) and lagged behind the rest of the German force. In 1921, the official historian Julian Corbett wrote. The Admiral took the report seriously and quickened his coaling and commenced sailing. The Admiralty also uncovered the German order of battle and tracked the deployment of ships, which gave them an offensive advantage. Hipper ordered German ships vigorously to enforce search and seizure rules, fishing boats being brought into Cuxhaven to be searched. The battlecruisers failed to improve fire distribution and similar targeting errors were made at Jutland. The editorial of the morning's Times was particularly scathing: With Lion′s electric generators out of action, Beatty could only signal using flag hoists and both signals were flown at the same time. Battle of Dogger Bank, naval engagement between British and German battle cruisers during World War I. Signals between ships continued to be by flag but there was no revision of the signal book or the assumptions of its authors. Beatty's flag lieutenant Ralph Seymour—responsible for hoisting Beatty's two commands on one flag hoist, allowing them to be read as one—remained. [14], Wireless transmissions from German ships in the Jade River on 23 January 1915, intercepted and decoded by Room 40, alerted the British to a German sortie in force as far as the Dogger Bank. A message from the Admiralty arrived that the Germans were planning a night destroyer attack but that the destroyers with the two scouting groups were low on fuel and those with the HSF were too far away. The Battle of Dogger Bank (1781), 5 August 1781, during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War between a British squadron under Hyde Parker and a Dutch squadron under Johan Zoutman The Dogger Bank incident (1904), 21 October 1904, during the Russo-Japanese War, when Russian sailors wrongly opened fire on British fishing boats The British disabled Blücher, the rearmost German ship and the Germans put the British flagship HMS Lion out of action. Some intercepts decoded during the action had taken two hours to reach British commanders at sea, by when they were out of date or misleading. ), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Dogger_Bank_(1915)&oldid=998826831, Naval battles of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Naval battles of World War I involving Germany, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Two flotillas of 18 torpedo boats combined, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 06:09. As the trawlers had their nets down, they were unable to flee and, in the general chaos, Russian ships shot at each other: the cruisers Aurora and Dmitrii Donskoi were taken for Japanese warships and bombarded by seven battleships sailing in formation, damaging both ships and killing a chaplain and at least one sailor and severely wounding another. [35][36], At first the Germans thought that Tiger had been sunk, because of a large fire that had been seen on her decks, but it was soon clear that the battle was a serious German reverse. It also concluded as follows: "the commissioners take pleasure in recognising, unanimously, that Admiral Rozhestvensky personally did everything he could, from beginning to end of the incident, to prevent trawlers, recognised as such, from being fired upon by the squadron".[17]. The Dogger Bank incident (also known as the North Sea Incident, the Russian Outrage or the Incident of Hull) occurred on the night of 21/22 October 1904, when the Russian Baltic Fleet mistook some British trawlers in the Dogger Bank area of the North Sea for an Imperial Japanese Navy force and fired on them. [3] On the Russian side, one sailor and a Russian Orthodox priest aboard the cruiser Aurora caught in the crossfire were killed. Blücher demonstrated the ability of the German ships to absorb great punishment; all of Hipper's remaining ships were larger, faster, newer, more heavily armed, and far better armoured than Blücher; only Seydlitz had suffered serious damage. On 19 January, Beatty had reconnoitred the area west of the German Bight and been seen by a German aircraft. The Signalbuch der Kaiserlichen Marine (SKM) was captured from the German light cruiser SMS Magdeburg after it ran aground in the Baltic on 26 August 1914. The British had escaped a potential disaster, because the British 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty) was unsupported by the 2nd Battle Squadron (Vice-Admiral Sir George Warrender), when it failed to make contact with the raiding force. All data from Campbell (1998) unless specified. Russian and Japanese imperial ambitions had led to the Russo-Japanese War breaking out in early 1904, with the two countries battling over control of areas of China and Korea. [18] In 1906 the Fisherman's Memorial was unveiled in Hull to commemorate the deaths of the three British sailors. Harwich Force (Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt) sailed from Harwich with three light cruisers and 35 destroyers, to rendezvous with the battlecruisers at 07:00 on 24 January. [40], The battle, although inconclusive, boosted British morale. [10] After twenty minutes' firing the fishermen saw a blue light signal on one of the warships, the order to cease firing.[11]. 1 On the night of 21 to 22 October 1904, the Russian Baltic Sea Fleet, while on its way to the Far East for deployment in the Russo-Japanese War, encountered some 30 British trawlers fishing in the North Sea off Hull in the area of the Dogger Bank (Russia; Baltic Sea; Warships; Fishing Boats). Naval battles and incidents of farm & garden Battle of Dogger Bank (1696), during the Nine Years' War a French fleet under the command of Jean Bart was victorious over the ships of a Dutch force of five ships and the convoy it was escorting. Information could reach the Grand Fleet late, incomplete or mistakenly interpreted. On Lion, two men had been killed and eleven wounded, most by a shell hit in the A turret lobby. Russian warships also fired on each other in the chaos of the melée. [11], Hipper suspected that the British had received advanced warning about earlier operations of the HSF from spy ships mingling with British and Dutch fishing boats, operating near the German Bight and the Dogger Bank, to observe German fleet movements. The Battle of Dogger Bank on 10 February 1916 was a naval engagement between the Kaiserliche Marine of the German Empire and the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, during the First World War. [12] The fleet then proceeded to the Sea of Japan where it was soundly defeated in the Battle of Tsushima. At first, the inexperience of the cryptanalysts in naval matters led to errors in the understanding of the material and this lack of naval experience caused Oliver to make personal decisions about the information to be passed to other departments, many of which, particularly the Operations Department, had reservations about the value of Room 40. The Grand Fleet left Scapa at 21:00 on 23 January, to sweep the southern North Sea but could not be expected to arrive on the scene until the afternoon of 24 January. [8] Torpedo boats, a recent development of the major navies, had the potential to damage and sink large warships, and were very difficult to detect, causing psychological stress on sailors at war. A slightly more aggressive strategy was permitted, within the policy of keeping the HSF in being, in which the fleet could sortie to attempt to isolate and destroy advanced British forces or to attack the Grand Fleet if in greater strength. Lion was taken in tow by Indomitable, an operation which took two hours, in which the battlecruisers were exceedingly vulnerable to submarine attacks. Russian Outrage on the Hull fishing fleet on 22 October 1904, otherwise known as the ‘Dogger Bank incident’, the ‘North Sea Incident’, or the ‘Incident of Hull’, showing shell-damaged returned trawlers in St Andrews Dock, Hull. News of the sailing of the HSF was delivered so late that the British commanders thought that the Germans were on the way, when they were returning. No damage was done but the British ships put on speed and withdrew to avoid further aerial attack, leaving some of the survivors behind. Hours after the British ultimatum to Germany in August 1914, they cut German cables. The damage to Seydlitz revealed flaws in the protection of its magazines and dangerous ammunition-handling procedures and some of these failings were remedied in the HSF before the Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916). [10], After navigating a non-existent minefield, the Russian fleet sailed into the North Sea. With a calm sea and a breeze from the north-east, Zoutman manoeuvred his line onto a port tack, heading south-east by east, and awaited Parker, who held the weather gage. The Dogger Bank incident (also known as the North Sea Incident, the Russian Outrage or the Incident of Hull) occurred on the night of 21/22 October 1904, when the Russian Baltic Fleet mistook some British trawlers at Dogger Bank for an Imperial Japanese Navy force and fired on them. More serious losses to both sides were only avoided by the extremely low quality of Russian gunnery, with the battleship Oryol reportedly firing more than 500 shells without hitting anything. The I Scouting Group contained the battlecruisers Seydlitz (flagship), Moltke, Derfflinger and Blucher, four light cruisers and eighteen destroyers. Russian attack on British trawlers in 1904, This article is about a 1904 Russian attack on British fishermen. Russian warships also fired on each other in the chaos of the melée. What would have been the result politically as well as militarily if the UK had taken action against the Russian Fleet over the sinking of the British fishing vessels. [15] The battlecruisers comprised the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (Beatty) with Lion (flagship), Tiger and Princess Royal. [1] Beatty chose to approach from this direction so that the prevailing wind blew the British ships' smoke clear, allowing them a good view of the German ships, while German gunners were partially blinded by their funnel and gun smoke blowing towards the British ships. [18] At 09:43, Seydlitz was hit by a 13.5 in (340 mm) shell from Lion, which penetrated her after turret barbette and caused an ammunition fire in the working chamber. The 'Battle' of Dogger Bank Having survived attacks from phantom Japanese torpedo boats and submarines and having negotiated a non-existent minefield, the squadron sailed into the North Sea where the Russians spotted the Hull trawler fleet fishing on the Dogger Bank. [9], Similar accidents and rumours affected the Russian fleet: there was a general fear of attack, with widespread rumours that a fleet of Japanese torpedo boats were stationed off the Danish coast, talk of the Japanese having mined the seas, and alleged sightings of Japanese submarines. 3,941 3. Post Dec 22, 2006 #1 2006-12-22T12:33. The incident led to a serious diplomatic conflict between Russia and Britain, which was particularly dangerous due to the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. [15] The International Commission met in Paris from 9 January to 25 February 1905. [12], Hipper intended to clear the bank of British fishing vessels and dubious neutrals and to attack any small British warships in the area, with the HSF covering the withdrawal of the battlecruisers. The German squadron returned to harbour, with some ships in need of extensive repairs. The British had lost no ships and suffered few casualties; the Germans had lost Blücher and most of its crew. For the naval battles, see, The dogger bank incident in 1904 – The Russian fleet attacks Hull trawlers, "Battle of Tsushima | Russo-Japanese war", Details and History of some of the Trawlers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dogger_Bank_incident&oldid=994913555, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 05:26. … The British rescued 189 unwounded prisoners and 45 wounded from Blücher. Lion opened fire at 08:52, at a range of 20,000 yd (11 mi; 18 km) and the other British ships commenced firing as they came within range, while the Germans were unable to reply until 09:11, because of the shorter range of their guns. The new 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron (Rear-Admiral Gordon Moore deputy to Beatty) had New Zealand as flagship and Indomitable. The Kamchatka eventually rejoined the fleet and claimed that she had engaged three Japanese warships and fired over 300 shells: the ships she had actually fired at were a Swedish merchantman, a German trawler, and a French schooner. Military History: Apr 19, 2015 Three German torpedo boat flotillas sortied into the North Sea and encountered the British 10th Mine-sweeping Flotilla near Dogger Bank. The Germans learned lessons and the British did not. It was also considered highly significant that no officer from that ship appeared before the Commission, nor were her logs produced. When Jellicoe asked for a decryption section to take to sea, he was refused on security grounds. Blücher was hit by about 70 shells and wrecked. The 'Battle' of Dogger Bank Borodino Having survived attacks from phantom Japanese torpedo boats and submarines and having negotiated a non-existent minefield, the squadron sailed into the North Sea where the Russians spotted the Hull trawler fleet fishing on the Dogger Bank. Dogger Bank incident during the Russo Japanese War (1904) Military History: Dec 6, 2020: Way of Japanese horse: Asian History: Dec 6, 2020: Effectiveness of the late WW2 Japanese tanks? Later that night, during fog, the officers on duty sighted the British trawlers, interpreted their signals incorrectly and classified them as Japanese torpedo boats, despite being more than 20,000 miles (30,000 km) from Japan. The German fleet had increased in size since the outbreak of war, with the arrival in service of the König-class dreadnought battleships SMS König, Grosser Kurfürst, Markgraf and Kronprinz of the 3rd Battle Squadron and the Derfflinger-class battlecruiser Derfflinger. [16] Beatty ordered Indomitable—his slowest ship—to intercept Blücher. The lack of a proper war staff at the Admiralty and poor liaison between Room 40, Oliver and the operations staff meant that the advantage was poorly exploited in 1915; it was not until 1917 that this was remedied. [24] At 10:30, Blücher was hit by a shell from Princess Royal, which caused an ammunition fire and boiler room damage. [6], The Russian warships involved in the incident were en route to the Far East, to reinforce the 1st Pacific Squadron stationed at Port Arthur, and later Vladivostok, during the Russo-Japanese War. Ten men were killed on Tiger with nine men wounded and on Meteor, four men were killed and two were wounded. 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